shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname ...]
-s Enable (set) each optname
-u Disable (unset) each optname.
-p Display a list of all settable options, with an indication of
whether or not each is set. The output is displayed in a form
that can be reused as input. (-p is the default action)
-q Suppresses normal output; the return status indicates whether the optname
is set or unset. If multiple optname arguments are given with '-q',
the return status is zero if all optnames are enabled; non-zero otherwise.
-o Restricts the values of optname to be those defined for the '-o' option to
the set builtin.
If either '-s' or '-u' is used with no optname arguments, the display is limited to those options which are set or unset, respectively. Unless otherwise noted, the shopt options are disabled (off) by default.
The return status is zero unless an optname was *not* enabled or was not a valid shell option.
The list of shopt options is:
If this is set, an argument to the cd builtin command that
is not a directory is assumed to be the name of a variable whose value is
the directory to change to.
If set, minor errors in the spelling of a directory component in a cd
command will be corrected. The errors checked for are transposed characters,
a missing character, and a character too many. If a correction is found, the
corrected path is printed, and the command proceeds. This option is only used
by interactive shells.
If this is set, Bash checks that a command found in the hash table exists
before trying to execute it. If a hashed command no longer exists, a normal
path search is performed.
If set, Bash checks the window size after each command and, if necessary,
updates the values of LINES and COLUMNS.
If set, Bash attempts to save all lines of a multiple-line command in the
same history entry. This allows easy re-editing of multi-line commands.
If set, Bash includes filenames beginning with a '.' in the results of filename
If this is set, a non-interactive shell will not exit if it cannot execute
the file specified as an argument to the exec builtin command.
An interactive shell does not exit if exec fails.
If set, aliases are expanded. This option is enabled by default for interactive
If set, the extended pattern matching features described above are enabled.
If set, the history list is appended to the history file when the shell exits,
rather than overwriting the history file.
shopt -s histappend
To append every line to history individually set:
With these two settings, a new shell will get the history lines from all previous
shells instead of the default 'last window closed'>history
(the history file is named by the value of the HISTFILE variable)
If set, and Readline is being used, a user is given the opportunity to re-edit
a failed history substitution.
If set, and Readline is being used, the results of history substitution
are not immediately passed to the shell parser. Instead, the resulting line
is loaded into the Readline editing buffer, allowing further modification.
If set, and Readline is being used, Bash will attempt to perform hostname
completion when a word containing a '@' is being completed.
This option is enabled by default.
If set, Bash will send SIGHUP to all jobs when an interactive
login shell exits.
Allow a word beginning with '#' to cause that word and all
remaining characters on that line to be ignored in an interactive shell. This
option is enabled by default.
If enabled, and the cmdhist option is enabled, multi-line commands
are saved to the history with embedded newlines rather than using semicolon
separators where possible.
If set, and a file that Bash is checking for mail has been accessed since
the last time it was checked, the message "The mail in mailfile
has been read" is displayed.
If set, and Readline is being used, Bash will not attempt to search the
PATH for possible completions when completion is attempted on
an empty line.
If set, Bash matches filenames in a case-insensitive fashion when performing
If set, Bash allows filename patterns which match no files to expand to
a null string, rather than themselves.
If set, the programmable completion facilities are enabled. This option
is enabled by default.
If set, prompt strings undergo variable and parameter expansion after being
expanded. This option is enabled by default.
The shell sets this option if it is started in restricted mode. The value
can not be changed. This is not reset when the startup files are executed,
allowing the startup files to discover whether or not a shell is restricted.
If this is set, the shift builtin prints an error message when
the shift count exceeds the number of positional parameters.
If set, the source builtin uses the value of PATH
to find the directory containing the file supplied as an argument. This option
is enabled by default.
If set, the echo builtin expands backslash-escape sequences